Tag Archives: Body and Mind

Akan Soul

A Critique of the Concept of Quasi-Physicalism in Akan Philosophy
MOHAMMED MAJEED, African Studies Quarterly | Volume 14, Issues 1 & 2| November 2013


The philosophical ideas of any culture, including the Akan, may be obtained from the language, beliefs, and practices of that culture. In this regard, an examination of some Akan cultural beliefs and language should aid in the understanding of the Akan concept of a person. In Akan language, the human body is referred to as honam, but there are two other expressions, ōkra and sunsum, which, together with honam, seem to suggest belief in the existence of two distinct components of the human being. These expressions are sometimes translated as “soul or mind” and “spirit’ respectively and designated as being spiritual.

Akan thinkers who hold spiritual conceptions of these entities include Asare Opoku, Peter Sarpong, and Kwame Gyekye.1 Even though Sarpong, for instance, correctly translates sunsum as “spirit,” he nonetheless sees it as deriving from the father—an error that Gyekye points out.2 It is also held in Akan thought that the ōkra does not, just like the sunsum, form part of the brain or the body Continue reading

Dantian Field

Where in the World is Dantian?
By Sifu Anthony Korahais, 2012

The Chinese word dantian (丹田) literally means “elixir field”. A better translation is “energy center.” It is the natural center for your body’s energy. Dantian is important not only for energy arts like Qigong, but also for martial arts, especially Tai Chi Chuan and Shaolin Kung Fu.

So where in the world is dantian?

Traditionally, it is located slightly below and slightly behind your belly button. The classical measurement uses a biological inch, which is the width of your own thumb. So your dantian is located 3 thumb-widths below and 2 thumb-widths behind your navel.

But if you go searching for dantian with your thumbs, you’re not likely to find it. First of all, dantian can be in slightly different places for Continue reading

Cinnabar Field

Upper Cinnabar Field

The Upper Cinnabar Field,
located in the region of the brain

Cinnabar Fields (Dantian)
Fabrizio Pregadio, 2014

The Cinnabar Fields, or dantian, are three loci in the human body that play a major role in breathing, meditation, and Neidan (Internal Alchemy) practices. Located in the regions of the abdomen, the heart, and the brain, but devoid of material counterparts, they establish a tripartite division of inner space that corresponds to other threefold motives in the Taoist pantheon and cosmology.

The Three Fields

The lower Cinnabar Field is the dantian proper and is the seat of essence (jing). Different sources place it at 1.3, 2, 2.4, 3, or 3.6 inches (cun) below or behind the navel, and consider it to be the same as, or closely related to, other loci in the same region of the body: the Gate of the Existence (mingmen), the Origin of the Barrier (guanyuan), and the Ocean of Breath (qihai). In the first stage of the Neidan process (“refining essence Continue reading

Three Dantians

The Taoist Approach of the Three Dantians
By Dr. Te-Hsin Lo & Master Joseph Zeisky

The Taoist approach of the Three Dantians (Elixir fields):

Quite often, when the phrase Dan (elixir) tian (field) is [used], one thinks of the lower Dantian only, an area about three inches below the naval and one inch inside, which also includes the hui yin cavity in the perineum area and the mingmen (gate of life) cavity in the lower back. These three areas/cavities connected together makes-up what is generally referred to as the lower dantian. It is where the Yuan qi resides, where life begins and the physical area that was formerly connected to the heavenly energy.

In Taoist energy arts, there is the concept of the three Dantians; the upper dantian, the middle dantian and the lower dantian. These elixir fields function on a more subtle level than the body’s more physical manifestations such as blood, lymph, muscle, tendons and bone. The Continue reading

Gorin of Sho

Musashi Miyamoto’s Book of Five Rings

While in reclusion, Miyamoto Musashi wrote the “Go Rin No Sho”, known in English as “The Book Of Five Rings”, which was a text on kenjutsu, martial arts and philosophy.

Many translations of the “Go Rin No Sho” have been made over the years, and it enjoys an audience considerably broader than just those interested in martial arts. For instance, some business leaders find its discussion of conflict and how to take advantage of it to be relevant to their work.

The five “books” refer to the idea that there are different elements of battle, just as there are different physical elements in life, as is believed in Buddhism, Shintoism, and other Eastern religions.

The term “Ichi School”, which is referenced in the Go Rin No Sho, refers to the “Niten No Ichi Ryu”, or “Ni Ten Ichi Ryu”, which when literally translated means “Two Swords, One Heaven”, although the translation could be interpreted as “Two Swords, One Spirit”, or “Two Swords, One Entity”. Continue reading



Tummo (gtum-mo) is a Tibetan word, literally meaning fierce [woman] or inner fire. Tummo may also be rendered in English approximating its phonemic enunciation as ‘Dumo’.

Tummo (Sanskrit: caṇḍālī) is a form of Yoga, found in the Six Yogas of Naropa, Lamdre, Kalachakra and Anuyoga teachings of Tibetan Vajrayana. Tummo originally derives from Indian Vajrayana tradition, including the instruction of the Mahasiddha Krishnacarya and the Hevajra Tantra. The purpose of tummo is to gain control over body processes during the completion stage of ‘highest yoga tantra’ (Anuttarayoga Tantra) or Anuyoga.



After familiarity in trul khor, there is the practice of tummo.

Continue reading

Possessive Demons

Asuras Wrath GaretroWhat is the meaning of being ‘affected by ghosts’ and being ‘possessed by ghosts’ (demonic possession)?
By Spiritual Science Research Foundation

1. The definition of being ‘affected by ghosts’

Being affected by ghosts (demons, devils, negative energies, etc.) means the physical, mental, intellectual or spiritual (or any combination thereof) functioning of a person is affected or altered by ghosts entirely through the use of their black energy. There is no direct control by the ghosts over the mind and intellect of the affected person. The ghost has not succeeded in merging with the person’s consciousness in any form.

Ghosts (demons, devils, negative energies, etc.) with their black energy can either stimulate or cloud the faculties of the affected person. Through this black energy, they can affect the person in many ways such as giving him a skin rash, inducing negative thinking or clouding his intellect that cannot be attributed to any other known cause. In a way, this is indirect control over the person. Continue reading

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