Kaivalya

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Final Liberation: Chapter 4 of the Yoga Sutras is entitled Kaivalya Pada, which means the chapter on final liberation. Chapter 4 explains how the mind is constructed and veils the inner light of the Self. It describes how the yogi deals with the natural breaches in enlightenment, and how the primal building blocks of the mind resolve back into their cause, allowing final liberation.

Kaivalya Pada
कैवल्यपाद

on liberation

जन्मओषधिमन्त्रतपस्समाधिजाः सिद्धयः ॥१॥
janma-oṣadhi-mantra-tapas-samādhi-jāḥ siddhayaḥ ||1||
Supernatural powers (siddhis) arise from birth, drugs, mantras, austerity, or yoga (samadhi) ||1||

जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात् ॥२॥
jāty-antara-pariṇāmaḥ prakṛty-āpūrāt ||2||
Physical transformation engenders inner transformation of the form of existence. ||2||

निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनांवरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत् ॥३॥
nimittam-aprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ-varaṇa-bhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat ||3||
However, outer causes are not sufficient to bring about inner change, which can be likened to a farmer removing a sluice gate so as to allow water to irrigate his rice field so that rice can grow there. ||3||

निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात् ॥४॥
nirmāṇa-cittāny-asmitā-mātrāt ||4||
The mutable self (chitta) is engendered solely by identification with that which is mutable. ||4||

प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम् ॥५॥
pravṛtti-bhede prayojakaṁ cittam-ekam-anekeṣām ||5||
While the forms may manifest in various ways, the mutable essence (chitta) is the underlying principle of these many forms. ||5||

तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम् ॥६॥
tatra dhyānajam-anāśayam ||6||
In the various manifestations, the impression engendered by contemplation (dhyana) is free of influences. ||6||

कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनः त्रिविधमितरेषाम् ॥७॥
karma-aśukla-akṛṣṇaṁ yoginaḥ trividham-itareṣām ||7||
For a yogi, the law of cause and effect (karma) is neither white nor black, but is threefold for others. ||7||

ततः तद्विपाकानुग्णानामेवाभिव्यक्तिः वासनानाम् ॥८॥
tataḥ tad-vipāka-anugṇānām-eva-abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām ||8||
In accordance with this law of cause and effect, the fruits ripen that correspond to the underlying desires (vasanas). ||8||

जाति देश काल व्यवहितानामप्यान्तर्यां स्मृतिसंस्कारयोः एकरूपत्वात् ॥९॥
jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām-apy-āntaryāṁ smṛti-saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt ||9||
Even if modality, place and time cease to exist, the continuity of wish and consequences remains, for remembrance (smriti) and impressions (samskaras) are part of the same being. ||9||

तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात् ॥१०॥
tāsām-anāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt ||10||
The continuity arising from wish and reality has no beginning, for the will to live is eternal. ||10||

हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैःसंगृहीतत्वातेषामभावेतदभावः ॥११॥
hetu-phala-āśraya-ālambanaiḥ-saṁgṛhītatvāt-eṣām-abhāve-tad-abhāvaḥ ||11||
The continuity of wish and reality arises from supporting factors and external objects. If they disappear, the continuity arising from wish and reality likewise disappears. ||11||

अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्तिअध्वभेदाद् धर्माणाम् ॥१२॥
atīta-anāgataṁ svarūpato-‘sti-adhvabhedād dharmāṇām ||12||
The past and future exist inherently. Tasks (dharma) arise from the changes. ||12||

ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्माः गुणात्मानः ॥१३॥
te vyakta-sūkṣmāḥ guṇa-atmānaḥ ||13||
These characteristics are manifest or subtle, physical or spiritual ||13||

परिणामैकत्वात् वस्तुतत्त्वम् ॥१४॥
pariṇāma-ikatvāt vastu-tattvam ||14||
The uniqueness of change comprises the essence of everything. ||15||

वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः ॥१५॥
vastusāmye citta-bhedāt-tayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ ||15||
That which is mutable in us (chitta) takes various paths to the same object, perception of which thus differs from one person another . ||15||

न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं चेद्वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात् ॥१६॥
na caika-citta-tantraṁ cedvastu tad-apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt ||16||
Nor does an object depend on that which is mutable in human beings; for if it did, then what would happen to the object if it were not perceived? ||16||

तदुपरागापेक्षित्वात् चित्तस्य वस्तुज्ञाताज्ञातं ॥१७॥
tad-uparāga-apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu-jñātājñātaṁ ||17||
However, whether an object, situation or person is understood or misjudged depends on the emotional preconceptions and the expectations of that which is mutable in human beings. ||17||

सदाज्ञाताः चित्तव्र्त्तयः तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात् ॥१८॥
sadājñātāḥ citta-vrttayaḥ tat-prabhoḥ puruṣasya-apariṇāmitvāt ||18||
The true self can always observe the misconceptions (vritti) in that which is mutable in human beings, because this pure self (purusha) is not in motion. ||18||

न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात् ॥१९॥
na tat-svābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt ||19||
As that which is mutable in human beings is not inherently identifiable, it is a perceptible object. ||19||

एक समये चोभयानवधारणम् ॥२०॥
eka samaye c-obhaya-an-avadhāraṇam ||20||
Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously. ||20||

चित्तान्तर दृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेः अतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसंकरश्च ॥२१॥
cittāntara dṛśye buddhi-buddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smṛti-saṁkaraś-ca ||21||
That which is mutable in one human being (chitta) being perceived by another mutable human being (chitta) would be as absurd as perception perceiving perception, and would result in confusion of remembrance. ||21||

चितेरप्रतिसंक्रमायाः तदाकारापत्तौ स्वबुद्धि संवेदनम् ॥२२॥
citer-aprati-saṁkramāyāḥ tad-ākāra-āpattau svabuddhi saṁ-vedanam ||22||
Unlike the characteristic of that which is immutable in human beings, the true self is unchangeable and can thus achieve full knowledge and self knowledge. ||23||

द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम् ॥२३॥
draṣṭṛ-dṛśy-opa-raktaṁ cittaṁ sarva-artham ||23||
The actual purpose of that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) is to see close up both the observer (drashtu) and the observed object. ||23||

तदसङ्ख्येय वासनाभिः चित्रमपि परार्थम् संहत्यकारित्वात् ॥२४॥
tad-asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram-api parārtham saṁhatya-kāritvāt ||24||
This human mutability (chitta) has countless wishes of every description (vasana). But it has another purpose – namely to establish a connection between the outside world and the true self. ||24||

विशेषदर्शिनः आत्मभावभावनानिवृत्तिः ॥२५॥
viśeṣa-darśinaḥ ātmabhāva-bhāvanā-nivṛttiḥ ||25||
For he who has experienced this unique vision (darshana), the desire (vritti) for self fulfillment vanishes. ||25||

तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम् ॥२६॥
tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ||26||
Then the power of discernment (viveka) will be strengthened and all that is mutable in human beings (chitta) will take the path of liberation (kaivalya). ||26||

तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः ॥२७॥
tac-chidreṣu pratyaya-antarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ ||27||
This viewpoint is breached by preconceptions (samskara), whereupon other impressions arise. ||27||

हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम् ॥२८॥
hānam-eṣāṁ kleśavad-uktam ||28||
These preconceptions are eliminated as described previously for spiritual burdens (klesha). ||28||

प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेः धर्ममेघस्समाधिः ॥२९॥
prasaṁkhyāne-‘py-akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharma-meghas-samādhiḥ ||29||
Attaining genuinely deep insight even engenders constant imperturbability and discernment (viveka). This state is referred to as dharma megha samadhi. ||29||

ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः ॥३०॥
tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivṛttiḥ ||30||
Then the concept (vritti) of spiritual burden (klesha) and cause and effect (karma) will be completely removed. ||30||

तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्यात् ज्ञेयमल्पम् ॥३१॥
tadā sarva-āvaraṇa-malāpetasya jñānasya-ānantyāt jñeyamalpam ||31||
Then all veils and uncertainty fall away. Knowledge that can be gained is nothing compared to the infinity of knowledge. ||31||

ततः कृतार्थानं परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम् ॥३२॥
tataḥ kṛtārthānaṁ pariṇāma-krama-samāptir-guṇānām ||32||
In this way is the purpose of change accomplished and all change (krama) in the physical realm (guna) comes to an end. ||32||

क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्त निर्ग्राह्यः क्रमः ॥३३॥
kṣaṇa-pratiyogī pariṇāma-aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ ||33||
The experience of a sequencing process of moments and changes comes to an end, thus making change (krama) a real experience. ||33||

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानांप्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥३४॥
puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ||34||
Liberation (kaivalya) fulfills the goal of the true self (purusha); matter (guna) is transcended. The true nature of being and the force of absolute knowledge are then revealed. ||34||

Sources:
http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-ch4.htm
http://www.ashtangayoga.info/source-texts/yoga-sutra-patanjali/chapter-4/


Hinduism Concepts
By Jayaram V

Kaivalya is a state of freedom from bondage, attachments, egoism, duality, attraction and aversion and the cycle of births and deaths. He who reaches this stage is called a Kevalin, the one who is always alone.

Kailvalya is attained by overcoming desires and attachment for the worldly pleasures and sense objects. It is not just a state of mental freedom, but freedom from the modifications of the mind itself. While in the body, a kevalin experiences aloneness in a state of self-absorption, in which the mind is silent, the desires are asleep, the duality of the knower and the known is absent.

A Kevalin achieves freedom by not shunning the dualities but remaining equal to them, by not choosing and discarding, but embracing life in its totality without choice, and preference.

In normal life we are subject to the dualities of life such as heat and cold, knower and the known, good and bad etc. Kaivalya is the absence such dualities. It is absence of otherness, the sense of separation, the longing for life, the need to be and to have, mental dependence upon the world and others for approval, security, comfort and love.

The state of aloneness is achieved by self-purification and inner transformation, through the practice of yoga, austerities and self-control.

The highest supreme Brahman is one and only. The true state of Brahman is aloneness. A Kevalin reflects this state in his inner world. He remains detached and self-absorbed. A Kevalin does not detest people or relationships. He remains detached from the world, even when he lives in it.

He may express love and compassion for others, but he is not guided by any motive in doing it. He expresses those higher emotions since he is established in supreme consciousness, and channels its supreme nature. A Kevalin neither disturbs others nor feels disturbed by the actions of others. He remains silent amidst turbulence and stable in performing actions.

A Kevalin is not attached to even God or to the notion of God. He sees no distinction between Him and others. He sees himself in all and all in himself. He becomes one with the universal consciousness, just as a rain drop falls into the ocean and becomes the ocean.

The state of Kaivalya begins with renunciation, a distaste for worldly life, attachment and relationships. A Kevalin continues on the path, practicing austerities, and disciplining his mind and body to prolong the silence of his mind. He approaches the exalted state of Kaivalya, when his mind becomes firmly attuned to continued silence and remains stable to all the noise and distractions of the world. In the final stages, a Kevalin finds peace not by having or choosing, but by being self-absorbed and seeking the company of none but his own Self.

The final state of Kaivalya is achieved only when you erase all the boundaries of separation between you and the rest of creation. It comes when you erase in your mind whatever that sets you apart. When you erase all traces of egoism, desire and attachment, the delusion of duality and separation disappear and you enter the supreme state of Kaivalya. You become Brahman, the one and only, without qualities and distinctions.

The true state of Kaivalya comes only when a jivanmukta, a liberated person, leaves his body and departs from here to the immortal world of Brahman. In the world of Brahman he becomes Brahman.

About: Hinduwebsite.com provides original and scholarly information about Hinduism and related religions, society and culture. We promote tolerance and the highest ideals reflected in these cultures. We have been serving the world community since 1999. More…
© 2000-2015 Hinduwebsite.com. All Rights are reserved. No part of this website can be copied or reproduced in any manner. Hinduwebsite.com presents original articles on various subjects. They are for your personal and spiritual growth not for copying and posting on your website. We do not accept donations. We rely solely upon our content to serve you. If you want to promote our website please write an introduction and post a link to it on your blog or website. However, please do not copy information from the website and then tell us that you were trying to give us publicity. We like publicity, but not in this manner. Please protect [our dharma] by following its values, which include non-stealing [and non-copy-pasting].

Advertisements

Tagged: , , , , , , ,

2 thoughts on “Kaivalya

  1. geo.kalpataru December 16, 2015 at 5:40 pm Reply

    ah, i really enjoyed this one..thank you

  2. thesevenminds December 19, 2015 at 3:32 pm Reply

    Thanks. 😉

Share a thought...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: