Karma and Vipaka

Tree of Life 123rfVipaka

Karma is action, and Vipaka, fruit or result, is its reaction.

Just as every object is accompanied by a shadow, even so every volitional activity is inevitably accompanied by its due effect. Karma is like potential seed: Vipaka could be likened to the fruit arising from the tree – the effect or result. Anisamsa and Adinaya are the leaves, flowers and so forth that correspond to external differences such as health, sickness and poverty – these are inevitable consequences, which happen at the same time. Strictly speaking, both Karma and Vipaka pertain to the mind.

As Karma may be good or bad, so may Vipaka [be] good or bad. As Karma is mental, so Vipaka is mental (of the mind). It is experienced as happiness, bliss, unhappiness or misery, according to the nature of the Karma seed. Anisamsa are the concomitant advantages – material things such as prosperity, health and longevity. When Vipaka’s concomitant material things are disadvantageous, they are known as Adinaya, full of wretchedness, and appear as poverty, ugliness, disease, short life-span and so forth.

As we sow, we reap somewhere and sometime, in his life or in a future birth. What we reap today is what we have sown either in the present or in the past.

The Samyutta Nikaya states:

“According to the seed that’s sown,
So is the fruit you reap there from,
Doer of good will gather good,
Doer of evil, evil reaps,
Down is the seed and thou shalt taste
The fruit thereof.”

Karma is a law in itself, which operates in its own field without the intervention of any external, independent ruling agency.

Happiness and misery, which are the common lot of humanity, are the inevitable effects of causes. From a Buddhist point of view, they are not rewards and punishments, assigned by a supernatural, omniscient ruling power to a soul that has done good or evil. Theists […] may regard present happiness and misery as blessings and curses conferred on His creation by an omniscient and omnipotent Divine Ruler who sits in heaven above controlling the destinies of the human race.

Buddhism, which emphatically denies such an Almighty, All merciful God-Creator and an arbitrarily created immortal soul, believes in natural law and justice which cannot be suspended by either an Almighty God or an All-compassionate Buddha. According to this natural law, acts bear their own rewards and punishments to the individual doer whether human justice finds out or not.

The All-Merciful Buddha, who had no ulterior selfish motives, did not teach this law of Karma to protect the rich and comfort the poor by promising illusory happiness in an after-life.

While we are born to a state created by ourselves, yet by our own self-directed efforts there is every possibility for us to create new, favourable environments even here and now. Not only individually, but also, collectively, we are at liberty to create fresh Karma that leads either towards our progress or downfall in this very life.

According to the Buddhist doctrine of Karma, one is not always compelled by an ‘iron necessity’, for Karma is neither fate, nor predestination imposed upon us by some mysterious unknown power to which we must helplessly submit ourselves. It is one’s own doing reacting on oneself, and so one has the possibility to divert the course of one’s Karma to some extent. How far one diverts it depends on oneself.

Is one bound to reap all that one has sown in just proportion? The Buddha provides an answer:

“If anyone says that a man or woman must reap in this life according to his present deeds, in that case there is no religious life, nor is an opportunity afforded for the entire extinction of sorrow. But if anyone says that what a man or woman reaps in this and future lives accords with his or her deeds present and past, in that case there is a religious life, and an opportunity is afforded for the entire extinction of a sorrow.” (Anguttara Nikaya)

Although it is stated in the Dhammapada that “not in the sky, nor in mid-ocean, or entering a mountain cave is found that place on earth where one may escape from (the consequences of) an evil deed”, yet one is not bound to pay all the past arrears of one’s Karma. If such were the case emancipation would be impossibility. Eternal recurrence would be the unfortunate result.

Source: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/karma.htm

See also: https://thesevenminds.wordpress.com/2013/01/15/three-types-of-karma/



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5 thoughts on “Karma and Vipaka

  1. Frank King Photos January 29, 2013 at 2:51 pm Reply

    Interesting thoughts. But I gotta tell ye, I have a very different viewpoint on karma: http://bit.ly/LSccLB

    • thesevenminds January 29, 2013 at 10:27 pm

      Thanks. It is a different view from New Testament ‘clean slate’ thinking, indeed. But, do you think that Christians who live a life of (some) sin, still go to ‘heaven’?

    • Frank King Photos January 29, 2013 at 11:02 pm

      Yes. Despite my best efforts, I continue to live a life of (some) sin. Every Christian does, unfortunately. But serious Christians believe Christ’s death and resurrection covers over the sins of everyone who believes in Him and follows Him. So we still go to Heaven.
      This should never mean, however, that we can simply sin up a storm and rely on Christ’s sacrifice. If we’re serious about what He’s done for us, we’ll also be serious about letting Him into our lives to transform us and bring us closer to what God wants each of us to be. But that make sense?

    • thesevenminds January 29, 2013 at 11:25 pm

      When the debate on past and after life is put to the side, it is clear that all religions point towards transformation of Self in THIS life. Regardless of sin, in this life one can reach the stage of Christ or Buddha, or at least make every effort to achieve so. It takes action, no matter which path one follows. But, before one can act, understanding is needed. I got this from the New Testament: “In all your getting, get understanding.” And Buddhism teaches me to then ACT on it, to achieve knowledge and wisdom.
      Thanks for your comment!

    • Frank King Photos January 30, 2013 at 12:13 am

      Great thoughts! Thanks for engaging with me; I appreciate it! 🙂

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